CFED Scorecard

CFED Assets & Opportunity Scorecard

Education
Four-Year Degree by Race
Definition

Ratio of the percentage of the white, non-Hispanic population to populations of color 25 years old and over with at least a four-year degree, 2014.

Description

Those with a college degree earn significantly more and accumulate more wealth over time than those with just a high school diploma, but the college attainment gap is increasingly becoming defined by race. This measure describes the disparity in college attainment between the white, non-Hispanic population and populations of color. In almost all states, people of color have lower rates of college attainment. For example, in Colorado, white non-Hispanics are over two times more likely than people of color to have at least four-year degrees (44.4% and 19.8%, respectively).

To see the data disaggregated by race and ethnicity, click on the Data by Race tab below.

1.6 times as many white adults in United States have 4-year degrees compared to adults of color

Four-Year Degree by Race, 2014

StatePercent with At Least
4-Year Degree,
White (%)
Percent with At Least
4-Year Degree,
People of Color (%)
RatioRank
United States 33.6% 21.6% 1.56
Alabama 26.1% 17.2% 1.52 24
Alaska 33.7% 16.1% 2.09 45
Arizona 33.6% 16.0% 2.10 46
Arkansas 22.9% 15.7% 1.46 21
California 41.6% 21.3% 1.95 43
Colorado 44.4% 19.8% 2.25 48
Connecticut 42.3% 24.2% 1.75 37
Delaware 32.1% 26.3% 1.22 5
District of Columbia 90.3% 31.8% 2.84 51
Florida 30.9% 21.6% 1.43 19
Georgia 33.1% 22.7% 1.46 20
Hawaii 43.9% 26.2% 1.68 30
Idaho 26.7% 12.5% 2.14 47
Illinois 36.6% 23.0% 1.59 27
Indiana 25.5% 19.2% 1.33 13
Iowa 28.0% 22.9% 1.22 6
Kansas 33.9% 20.0% 1.70 33
Kentucky 22.5% 19.8% 1.13 4
Louisiana 26.9% 16.0% 1.69 32
Maine 29.4% 26.8% 1.10 2
Maryland 43.1% 30.9% 1.40 16
Massachusetts 44.1% 27.9% 1.58 26
Michigan 28.4% 22.8% 1.25 7
Minnesota 35.7% 24.5% 1.46 22
Mississippi 24.6% 15.4% 1.59 28
Missouri 28.4% 22.4% 1.27 11
Montana 30.7% 15.9% 1.93 41
Nebraska 31.3% 18.4% 1.70 34
Nevada 27.7% 15.2% 1.82 38
New Hampshire 35.0% 34.6% 1.01 1
New Jersey 41.2% 28.9% 1.43 17
New Mexico 39.4% 15.0% 2.63 50
New York 40.5% 23.4% 1.73 36
North Carolina 32.3% 20.0% 1.62 29
North Dakota 28.2% 22.3% 1.27 9
Ohio 27.5% 21.7% 1.27 10
Oklahoma 26.3% 17.4% 1.51 23
Oregon 32.5% 21.1% 1.54 25
Pennsylvania 30.5% 21.3% 1.43 18
Rhode Island 33.5% 17.6% 1.90 39
South Carolina 31.0% 16.2% 1.91 40
South Dakota 29.3% 17.4% 1.69 31
Tennessee 26.7% 19.6% 1.36 14
Texas 36.3% 18.6% 1.95 42
Utah 33.8% 16.6% 2.04 44
Vermont 35.1% 31.3% 1.12 3
Virginia 40.3% 29.1% 1.38 15
Washington 34.7% 26.3% 1.32 12
West Virginia 18.9% 23.8% 1.26 8
Wisconsin 29.9% 17.5% 1.71 35
Wyoming 28.4% 11.7% 2.42 49

Four-Year College Degree, by Race and Ethnicity

Four-Year College Degree (%)
State WhitePeople of ColorBlackAsianNative AmericanHispanic
United States 33.6% 21.6% 19.7% 51.5% 13.9% 14.4%
Alabama 26.1% 17.2% 15.6% 49.1% 22.9% 16.2%
Alaska 33.7% 16.1% 16.8% 30.0% 7.3% 16.7%
Arizona 33.6% 16.0% 24.5% 50.6% 9.6% 11.7%
Arkansas 22.9% 15.7% 15.1% 50.4% 17.0% 8.5%
California 41.6% 21.3% 22.7% 50.0% 13.5% 11.4%
Colorado 44.4% 19.8% 23.2% 51.5% 19.4% 13.6%
Connecticut 42.3% 24.2% 21.3% 65.6% 23.6% 16.7%
Delaware 32.1% 26.3% 22.8% 69.9% 15.9%
District of Columbia 90.3% 31.8% 25.1% 76.6% 41.9%
Florida 30.9% 21.6% 17.1% 44.8% 15.0% 21.6%
Georgia 33.1% 22.7% 21.0% 52.2% 24.6% 15.4%
Hawaii 43.9% 26.2% 24.8% 31.5% 21.2%
Idaho 26.7% 12.5% 19.1% 37.2% 13.6% 8.4%
Illinois 36.6% 23.0% 20.8% 62.6% 23.9% 13.4%
Indiana 25.5% 19.2% 16.3% 57.1% 15.0% 12.6%
Iowa 28.0% 22.9% 19.1% 51.9% 15.0% 12.9%
Kansas 33.9% 20.0% 19.6% 50.0% 19.0% 12.4%
Kentucky 22.5% 19.8% 16.3% 53.2% 15.4% 16.2%
Louisiana 26.9% 16.0% 14.1% 42.0% 11.7% 18.0%
Maine 29.4% 26.8% 23.0% 42.2% 14.4% 29.8%
Maryland 43.1% 30.9% 27.2% 63.4% 19.3% 21.8%
Massachusetts 44.1% 27.9% 23.3% 57.5% 19.8% 17.3%
Michigan 28.4% 22.8% 16.9% 63.4% 12.5% 16.5%
Minnesota 35.7% 24.5% 18.6% 43.0% 9.5% 16.0%
Mississippi 24.6% 15.4% 15.1% 35.8% 6.1% 12.3%
Missouri 28.4% 22.4% 17.3% 58.7% 19.6% 20.8%
Montana 30.7% 15.9% 35.3% 10.9% 20.3%
Nebraska 31.3% 18.4% 24.2% 41.6% 12.7% 10.3%
Nevada 27.7% 15.2% 14.3% 37.4% 12.0% 8.9%
New Hampshire 35.0% 34.6% 29.5% 56.1% 18.8%
New Jersey 41.2% 28.9% 22.9% 67.8% 18.6% 17.3%
New Mexico 39.4% 15.0% 26.7% 56.9% 10.9% 14.1%
New York 40.5% 23.4% 22.9% 44.3% 17.2% 17.4%
North Carolina 32.3% 20.0% 19.6% 53.3% 12.5% 12.6%
North Dakota 28.2% 22.3% 62.6% 12.4% 14.3%
Ohio 27.5% 21.7% 15.8% 63.1% 17.8% 18.0%
Oklahoma 26.3% 17.4% 18.0% 42.0% 16.6% 10.2%
Oregon 32.5% 21.1% 25.6% 48.5% 11.9% 12.7%
Pennsylvania 30.5% 21.3% 16.4% 53.0% 18.7% 13.8%
Rhode Island 33.5% 17.6% 19.9% 33.9% 13.0%
South Carolina 31.0% 16.2% 14.7% 48.4% 21.6% 14.1%
South Dakota 29.3% 17.4% 22.9% 42.3% 9.5% 23.6%
Tennessee 26.7% 19.6% 18.2% 50.2% 16.4% 14.0%
Texas 36.3% 18.6% 21.8% 57.9% 17.0% 13.0%
Utah 33.8% 16.6% 23.0% 42.5% 12.1% 12.2%
Vermont 35.1% 31.3% 37.0% 36.8% 31.5%
Virginia 40.3% 29.1% 21.7% 57.9% 22.3% 22.5%
Washington 34.7% 26.3% 21.8% 48.2% 10.6% 14.5%
West Virginia 18.9% 23.8% 18.2% 60.4% 22.4%
Wisconsin 29.9% 17.5% 12.8% 44.5% 13.8% 12.2%
Wyoming 28.4% 11.7% 17.8% 5.0% 10.9%

"" indicates that no data is available.

Estimates for White adults are generated for the White, non-Hispanic population. Likewise, estimates for Hispanic adults include all adults of Hispanic or Latino origin, regardless of race.

Change in Four-Year Degree by Race

Four-Year Degree by Race (Ratio)
State20072008200920102011201220132014
United States 1.62 1.59 1.62 1.59 1.59 1.57 1.56 1.56
Alabama 1.56 1.56 1.57 1.56 1.65 1.52 1.47 1.52
Alaska 2.67 2.06 2.09 2.02 2.06 1.96 2.13 2.09
Arizona 2.45 2.32 2.23 2.23 2.31 2.04 2.26 2.10
Arkansas 1.67 1.57 1.69 1.59 1.50 1.54 1.60 1.46
California 2.03 2.00 2.03 1.95 1.95 1.96 1.94 1.95
Colorado 2.36 2.35 2.34 2.64 2.36 2.29 2.37 2.25
Connecticut 1.75 1.73 1.89 1.92 1.86 1.72 1.86 1.75
Delaware 1.45 1.21 1.43 1.25 1.46 1.31 1.27 1.22
District of Columbia 3.28 3.42 3.32 3.04 3.12 2.98 2.77 2.84
Florida 1.40 1.39 1.41 1.43 1.45 1.40 1.40 1.43
Georgia 1.53 1.51 1.59 1.54 1.45 1.47 1.46 1.46
Hawaii 1.82 1.72 1.72 1.71 1.56 1.64 1.65 1.68
Idaho 1.90 2.11 2.20 2.31 1.94 2.13 2.00 2.14
Illinois 1.74 1.60 1.69 1.62 1.67 1.62 1.63 1.59
Indiana 1.32 1.35 1.43 1.32 1.35 1.30 1.39 1.33
Iowa 1.23 1.25 1.35 1.43 1.40 1.34 1.30 1.22
Kansas 1.81 1.58 1.80 1.64 1.71 1.80 1.73 1.70
Kentucky 1.21 1.14 1.24 1.18 1.11 1.17 1.12 1.13
Louisiana 1.69 1.75 1.75 1.65 1.76 1.73 1.62 1.69
Maine 1.36 1.16 1.28 1.16 1.19 1.19 1.05 1.10
Maryland 1.39 1.41 1.42 1.44 1.39 1.44 1.44 1.40
Massachusetts 1.55 1.49 1.55 1.53 1.56 1.57 1.49 1.58
Michigan 1.32 1.36 1.30 1.29 1.25 1.25 1.29 1.25
Minnesota 1.33 1.36 1.41 1.42 1.48 1.33 1.39 1.46
Mississippi 1.90 1.76 1.82 1.66 1.61 1.66 1.67 1.59
Missouri 1.43 1.34 1.34 1.33 1.30 1.34 1.36 1.27
Montana 2.60 1.68 1.80 1.76 1.85 1.84 1.97 1.93
Nebraska 1.86 1.77 1.91 1.79 1.88 1.74 1.87 1.70
Nevada 1.69 1.60 1.70 1.63 1.82 1.82 1.81 1.82
New Hampshire 1.09 1.20 1.04 1.08 1.16 1.05 1.01 1.01
New Jersey 1.41 1.37 1.42 1.43 1.44 1.43 1.41 1.43
New Mexico 2.85 2.73 2.74 2.77 2.99 2.67 2.47 2.63
New York 1.72 1.70 1.70 1.75 1.75 1.75 1.72 1.73
North Carolina 1.73 1.71 1.71 1.69 1.76 1.73 1.66 1.62
North Dakota 1.18 1.85 1.51 1.42 1.58 1.20 1.61 1.27
Ohio 1.29 1.25 1.30 1.28 1.25 1.27 1.29 1.27
Oklahoma 1.68 1.45 1.60 1.54 1.52 1.62 1.63 1.51
Oregon 1.55 1.47 1.56 1.56 1.59 1.54 1.51 1.54
Pennsylvania 1.38 1.37 1.45 1.42 1.45 1.43 1.38 1.43
Rhode Island 1.92 1.83 2.03 2.17 2.07 1.95 2.00 1.90
South Carolina 1.91 2.08 1.97 1.90 2.00 1.85 1.88 1.91
South Dakota 1.78 1.87 1.80 1.77 1.82 1.95 1.85 1.69
Tennessee 1.39 1.39 1.36 1.40 1.35 1.37 1.35 1.36
Texas 2.29 2.19 2.25 2.12 2.07 2.07 1.97 1.95
Utah 2.03 1.77 2.12 2.12 1.89 1.84 1.93 2.04
Vermont 1.00 1.09 1.13 1.22 1.02 1.10 1.12 1.12
Virginia 1.48 1.46 1.46 1.40 1.37 1.39 1.37 1.38
Washington 1.38 1.38 1.29 1.41 1.43 1.36 1.35 1.32
West Virginia 1.12 1.11 0.84 1.19 1.12 1.20 1.11 1.26
Wisconsin 1.68 1.48 1.61 1.59 1.62 1.72 1.68 1.71
Wyoming 1.81 2.50 2.62 1.77 1.74 1.95 1.66 2.42

Definition

Ratio of the percentage of the white, non-Hispanic population to populations of color (Black or African-American; American Indian and Native Alaskan; Asian; Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander; Hispanic or Latino; some other race; two or more races) 25 years old and over with at least a four-year degree, 2014.

Calculated by dividing the higher value by the lower value (i.e., the percentage of the white population with at least a four-year degree divided the percentage of populations of color with at least a four-year degree, except in West Virginia, where people of color have higher rates of college attainment).

A ratio of 1 indicates perfect equality; the higher the ratio, the greater the inequality. 

Source

2014 American Community Survey. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, 2015.

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