2013 CFED Scorecard

Financial Assets & Income

Outcome Measures

Income Poverty Rate

Asset Poverty Rate

Asset Poverty by Race

Asset Poverty by Gender

Asset Poverty by Family Structure

Liquid Asset Poverty Rate

Liquid Asset Poverty by Race

Liquid Asset Poverty by Gender

Liquid Asset Poverty by Family Structure

Extreme Asset Poverty Rate

Net Worth

Net Worth by Race

Net Worth by Income

Net Worth by Gender

Net Worth by Family Structure

Unbanked Households

Underbanked Households

Households with Savings Accounts

Consumers with Subprime Credit

Borrowers 90+ Days Overdue

Average Credit Card Debt

Bankruptcy Rate

Policy Priorities

Tax Credits for Working Families

State IDA Program Support

Lifting Asset Limits in Public Benefit Programs

Protections from Predatory Short-Term Loans

Additional Policies

Income Tax Threshold

Tax Burden by Income

Prize-Linked Savings

Paperless Payday

Trend Indicators

Change in Net Worth

Change in Asset Poverty

Change in Liquid Asset Poverty

Change in Consumers with Subprime Credit

Change in Average Credit Card Debt

Businesses & Jobs

Housing & Homeownership

Health Care

Education

CFED Assets & Opportunity Scorecard

Resident Ownership of Manufactured Housing Communities

Reports & Graphics

Definition

States that have enacted legislation that promotes resident ownership of manufactured housing communities, December 2012.

Description

About 2.9 million manufactured homes are located in an estimated 50,000 manufactured home communities. Most of the families living in those communities own their homes but rent the ground beneath them, leaving them vulnerable to excessive rent hikes and even eviction if the land owner sells the land.

Through policies that promote resident ownership, owners of manufactured homes increase the likelihood of price appreciation and secure affordable homeownership for the community in the long run.

Strong state policy to promote resident ownership of manufactured housing communities has the following characteristics:

  • Advance Notice of Community Sale: States should enact laws granting residents advance notice of the sale of a community for change of use or when it is about to be sold to another investor. The length of the notice period needs to be long enough to allow homeowners to prepare and submit a purchase offer for the community, which varies depending on local conditions, but 60 days is usually sufficient.
  • Opportunity to Purchase: Manufactured homeowners should have an opportunity to purchase the community after they receive notice of the sale. Some states require the community owner to sell the community to the residents if they match the other offer. An alternative approach that has also proven effective is to require the community owner to consider any offer made by the residents and negotiate with them in good faith.
  • Tax Incentives. States can also enact laws providing a tax incentive for landowners to sell the community to the homeowners.
  • Strength of Protection against Sale of Park: Tax incentives and laws requiring advance notice and a purchase opportunity are weakened if they apply only in special circumstances, e.g., only when the community is being sold for a change in use, or only when the residents have already formed a resident association and sent a notice to the community owner. Protections against sale of park do not exist in many states, but where they do exist, they may range between medium strength and strong depending on the conditions in which they apply.

For more information and a complete resource guide on promoting resident ownership of manufactured housing communities, please visit CFED’s Manufactured Housing Advocacy Center and Toolkit.

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Resident Ownership of Manufactured Housing Communities

StateIs there a
closure notice?
Is there a provision
for opportunity to purchase?
Is there a tax incentive
to sell to homeowners?
What is the strength
of protection against
sale of park?
Alabama  No  No  No  No protection 
Alaska  No  No  No  No protection 
Arizona  No  No  No  No protection 
Arkansas  No  No  No  No protection 
California  Yes (30 days)  No  No  Medium 1
Colorado  No  No  No  No protection 
Connecticut  Yes (120 days)  Yes  No  Medium 2
Delaware  Yes (60 days) 3 Yes  No  Medium 
District of Columbia  No  No  No  No protection 
Florida  Yes (45 days) 4 Yes  No  Medium 5
Georgia  No  No  No  No protection 
Hawaii  No  No  No  No protection 
Idaho  Yes (15 days) 6 No  No  Medium 1
Illinois  No  No  No  No protection 
Indiana  No  No  No  No protection 
Iowa  No  No  No  No protection 
Kansas  No  No  No  No protection 
Kentucky  No  No  No  No protection 
Louisiana  No  No  No  No protection 
Maine  Yes (45 days)  No  No  Medium 2
Maryland  No  No  No  No protection 
Massachusetts  Yes (45 days)  Yes  No  Strong 7
Michigan  No  No  No  No protection 
Minnesota  Yes (45 days)  Yes  No  Medium 2
Mississippi  No  No  No  No protection 
Missouri  No  No  No  No protection 
Montana  No  No  Yes  Medium 
Nebraska  No  No  No  No protection 
Nevada  Yes (10 to 30 days) 8 No  No  Medium 1
New Hampshire  Yes (60 days)  Yes  No  Strong 
New Jersey  Yes (45 to 60 days)  Yes  No  Medium 2
New Mexico  No  No  No  No protection 
New York  Yes (120 days)  Yes  No  Medium 2
North Carolina  No  No  Yes  Medium 
North Dakota  No  No  No  No protection 
Ohio  No  No  No  No protection 
Oklahoma  No  No  No  No protection 
Oregon  Yes (10 days)  Yes  Yes  Medium 1
Pennsylvania  No  No  No  No protection 
Rhode Island  Yes (45 days)  Yes  Yes  Medium 1
South Carolina  No  No  No  No protection 
South Dakota  No  No  No  No protection 
Tennessee  No  No  No  No protection 
Texas  No  No  No  No protection 
Utah  No  No  No  No protection 
Vermont  Yes (45 days)  Yes  Yes  Medium 
Virginia  No  No  No  No protection 
Washington  Yes (14 days) 9 Yes  Yes  Medium 
West Virginia  No  No  No  No protection 
Wisconsin  No  No  No  No protection 
Wyoming  No  No  No  No protection 

Source

Manufactured Housing Resource Guide: Promoting Resident Ownership of Communities. Washington, DC: CFED and National Consumer Law Center, 2012.

Footnotes

1. Notice is required only if resident association meets certain requirements and sends notice to community owner.

2. Protections apply only in case of change of use.

3. Residents have 30 days to respond to an offer and an additional 30 days to agree to a sales contract.

4. If community owner is changing use, must give residents 45 days to sign and deliver a contract to purchase the community.

5. Community owner who receives third-party offer must give notice but there is no waiting period.

6. Notice must be provided within 15 days after entering into a listing agreement.

7. In some circumstances (where community owner receives third-party offer that will not result in change in use), notice is required only if resident association has sent notice to community owner.

8. Notice must be provided within 10 to 30 days before community is listed for sale.

9. Notice must be provided within 14 days after multiple listing, public notice, or advertisement.

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